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What is a Muffle Furnace

Views: 555     Author: Yammi     Publish Time: 2023-10-07      Origin: Site

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The muffle furnace is one of the most commonly used pieces of laboratory equipment and is the first choice for high-temperature treatment processes in many industries.

The Lab muffle furnace heats the material quickly to the desired temperature. The heating process is kept closed to ensure the material is isolated from the outside world.

The muffle furnace heats without direct contact between the material and the heating element, and the closed design reduces the risk of material contamination. These features provide the perfect solution for areas of precise high-temperature processing.

What is a muffle furnace?

Muffle furnace (also called muffle oven, retort furnace or muffle furnace oven) is heating equipment that can precisely control the temperature. It is widely used in scientific laboratories' material testing, metallurgy, ashing, heat treatment or ashing applications.

How does a muffle furnace work

The muffle furnace separates the object from the heating element, which is then indirectly heated by the heating chamber.

The advanced technology of the Muffle furnace makes it possible to control the temperature more precisely and maintain temperature uniformity. The muffle furnace can be heated, recovered and cooled quickly at high temperatures in a separate energy-saving cabinet. Radiant or convective energy is used to apply heat to the chamber using high-temperature heating coils within the insulation. The insulation effectively acts as a muffle to prevent heat from escaping.

Laboratory environments commonly use muffle furnaces for high-temperature applications. These applications include:

  • Melting glass

  • Manufacturing enamel coatings

  • Technical ceramics

What is a muffle furnace used for

The Muffle furnace heats up to 1800°C, which helps to easily perform process operations such as materials research, metallurgy, and ashing.

It is vital to several industries, including but not limited to the following uses:

  1. Materials testing: It can be used for ashing, annealing, and sintering of various materials as well as testing the chemical or physical properties of various materials in the laboratory. It is vital for precise control of test temperatures during experiments. They provide controlled high-temperature environments for studying material properties, phase transitions, sintering, and thermal analysis.

  2. Gravimetric analysis: The heating process heats the material in a closed furnace, and heating the sample removes volatile components, leaving the material to be accurately weighed.

  3. Annealing and tempering: Muffle furnaces provide precise temperature control for repeatable annealing and tempering processes.

  4. Sample Analysis: For analytical testing of the environment, water or soil, muffle furnace ovens are used for organic determination, soil/water content analysis and more.

  5. Ashing: The muffle furnace completely burns organic materials and leaves an inorganic residue.

  6. Industrial Manufacturing: The muffle furnaces can handle metal hardening, glass annealing and other production needs. It is significant to metal heat treatment, glass manufacturing, cement production and other industries.

Preheating and heat treatment: The muffle furnace can preheat and heat up slowly. It ensures uniform heat distribution in the heating environment.

Advantages of muffle furnace

Advantages of Muffle Furnace Ovens Besides the fact that the material to be heated does not come into contact with the heating element and the external environment, do you know of any other advantages? Will discuss the advantages of the muffle furnace  next:

  1. Precise temperature control: This is one of the muffle furnace's greatest advantages, allowing for precise temperature control and ensuring the accuracy of experimental results.

  2. Uniform heating: The muffle furnace uses inert gas as well as a unique insulation design, which makes the heat distribution in the furnace chamber uniform. It can realize uniform heating of materials.

  3. Closed heating: The heating material in the muffle furnace during the heating process is not in contact with the heating element and the outside world, effectively preventing material contamination.

  4. Functional diversity: A muffle furnace can be adapted to a variety of materials and a variety of heat treatment processes.

  5. Wide temperature range: The heating range is 100-1700℃, which can meet the heating requirements of most industries.


Components are placed inside the firewall, making replacing them difficult and sometimes more costly.

Muffle Furnace Operating Principles

Muffle furnace operation is based on the fundamental principles of heat transfer and insulation. Understanding these principles is critical to optimizing the performance and efficiency of muffle furnace heat treatment. This section will cover the following key principles:

  1. Thermal insulation: The muffle furnace is designed with high-quality insulation materials to minimize heat loss to the surrounding environment. Insulation materials such as refractory bricks, ceramic fibers or refractory castables help to maintain a stable and uniform temperature inside the furnace chamber.

  2. Radiant Heating: Muffle furnaces use heating elements to generate heat. These elements emit radiant heat absorbed by the material being processed inside the furnace chamber.

  3. Muffle Furnace Design: A separate chamber encloses the heated material Inside the muffle furnace. It protects the fabric from direct contact with the heating elements and prevents contamination. Muffle furnaces are usually made of refractory materials such as ceramic tubes, alumina or quartz.

  4. Temperature control: Muffle furnaces have a temperature control system to regulate the chamber's temperature precisely.

Types of muffle furnace


According to their heating element, operating temperature and controller, muffle furnaces can be divided into the following categories.

  1. Heating element: Can be divided into silicon carbide rod muffle furnaces, electric wire muffle furnaces, and silicon molybdenum rod muffle furnaces.

  2. Operating temperature classification:

    1000 ℃ electric furnace wire muffle furnace

    1100℃-1300℃ Silicon carbide rod muffle furnace

    1600℃ and above Silicon Molybdenum Rod Muffle Furnace

  3. Controller: PID-regulated control and programmable microcomputer temperature control with thyristor digital display.

Insulation material: This can be divided into refractory brick and ceramic fiber muffle furnaces.

Main components of Muffle furnace

Muffle furnace is mainly composed of the following elements:

  1. Heating elements: The heating elements generate heat in the furnace. Different types of heating elements have different temperature ranges and heating characteristics. Common types include silicon carbide rods, cantal wires and molybdenum disilicide elements.

  2. Muffle Chamber: A muffle chamber is a separate chamber enclosing the processed material. It provides insulation and protects the material from direct contact with the heating element.

  3. Thermal insulation materials: Using thermal insulation materials in the furnace body can minimize heat loss and maintain a stable temperature inside the furnace. The most common insulating materials are refractory castables, refractory bricks or ceramic fibers.

  4. Control panel: The control panel is used to display and control the temperature time and monitor the internal operation of the equipment. At the same time, it allows the user to set the parameters required for heating.

  5. Other accessories: The muffle furnace is equipped with over-temperature protection, an emergency stop button, alarm and other safety features to ensure safe operation and prevent accidents.

Precautions for muffle furnace operation

Before use

  • Wear good personal protection, such as heat-resistant gloves, safety glasses, etc.

  • Keep the room well-ventilated.

  • Familiarize yourself with the location of fire-fighting equipment and emergency shutdown procedures.

  • Check whether the muffle furnace is faulty and the power supply is plugged in.

  • Ensure that the interior of the furnace is clean and tidy.

Operating the muffle furnace

  • Close the door tightly after the sample is put in

  • After starting the heating process, you need to monitor the whole heating process.

  • Must monitor The monitor's temperature display to ensure that it reaches and maintains the desired temperature.

Completion of heating

  • After the heating cycle, wait for the furnace temperature to drop to a safe temperature before opening the door.

  • Wear heat-resistant gloves or use tongs to remove the material from the furnace.

  • Clean the muffle chamber after the experiment to ensure no material remains.

Muffle furnace safety regulations

  1. To avoid burning the electric heating element, do not exceed the maximum rated temperature of the resistance furnace. Ensure that the furnace area is well-ventilated to avoid the accumulation of harmful gases or fumes.

  2. Cut off the power supply to prevent electric shock when loading and sampling. And follow the correct loading procedure to avoid overloading the furnace.

  3. When loading and sampling, open the furnace door as quickly as possible. This will prolong the service life of the muffle furnace.

  4. Do not fill the furnace with any liquids and soluble metals.

  5. Do not put the sample with water and oil into the furnace. Do not take samples with clamps with water and oil.

  6. Wear gloves when loading and taking samples to prevent burns.

  7. Samples should be placed neatly in the middle of the furnace body. Often, keep the furnace chamber clean and timely removal of oxides and other things in the furnace.

  8. Must dry The muffle furnace for the first time or after a long period of deactivation and reuse. The oven drying time is 4 hours. The temperature is 200 ℃ to 600 ℃.

  9. You should use the muffle furnace controller within the ambient temperature range of 0-40℃. Do not pull out the thermocouple suddenly at a high temperature to prevent an explosion.

  10. When melting samples or burning sediments with alkaline substances in the furnace, it is better to lay a refractory plate on the bottom of the furnace to prevent corrosion of the furnace chamber.

Considerations for purchasing a muffle furnace

The Muffle furnace needs to be frequently heated to a very high temperature, which belongs to one of the high depreciation equipment in the laboratory. When purchasing, choose muffle furnaces that are conducive to prolonging the instrument's service life. The following are some precautions for choosing lab muffle furnace:

Choose the heating element that is not in direct contact with the steam

Insulation material of the furnace to choose high quality, which can prevent the loss of energy in the furnace

If the heating material is susceptible to temperature, try to choose a slow temperature rise, which can prevent the sample from thermal shock.

Choosing the suitable controller and digital board for your application is important.

Ashing furnace vs Muffle furnace vs Tube furnace


Ashing furnace


Muffle furnace


Tube furnace

Ashing, muffle, and tube furnaces are all experimental equipment used for heating samples. Then what is the difference between these three?

Muffle Furnace: Suitable for laboratory research experiments with high-temperature accuracy.

Ashing Furnace: An ashing furnace uses controlled airflow and high-temperature heating elements and is suitable for burning samples in air at a controlled rate. It heats the sample until only non-combustible ash remains. An ashing furnace is only suitable for combustible materials; non-combustible compounds may harm the equipment or contaminate the atmosphere. It usually analyzes the elemental composition of the ash by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

Tube Furnace: It is professional heating equipment for heat treatment, metallurgy, glass, new energy, and other industries.

  1. Airtightness: A tube furnace has airtightness. If the vacuum and airtightness requirements are relatively high, it is recommended to use a tube furnace.

  2. Operation difficulty: muffle furnace operation is relatively simple.

  3. Temperature range: tube and muffle furnaces can reach 1800 ℃.

  4. Size: muffle furnace chamber size can be customized. A high-temperature tube furnace has a limited diameter, so the production volume is smaller in a high-temperature tube furnace compared to a high-temperature muffle furnace.

  5. Price: tube furnace is expensive, muffle furnace is cheaper

  6. Muffle furnace heating is more uniform and can be fully combusted in contact with air

What are muffle furnaces used for?

Muffle furnaces can be used for various applications, including ashing, heat treatment of materials, annealing, calcining, loss of firing analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, quenching and sintering.

  • Ceramic and glass processing: Muffle furnaces are vital in producing ceramic and drink products. They are used for drying, sintering, glazing, and glass annealing, ensuring precise temperature profile control and producing a high-quality end product.

  • Dental and jewelry industry: Muffle furnaces are commonly used in the dental and jewelry industries for tasks such as porcelain firing, investment casting, and metal annealing. These processes require high-temperature heat treatment to achieve the desired aesthetic and material properties.

How long does it take to reach the max temperature?

The maximum temperature that a muffle furnace can heat depends on the material of the heating elements. The time to reach the desired temperature depends not only on the material of the heating elements but also on the dimensions of the furnace, the power and the insulation. Usually, desktop or small muffle furnaces take 15-25 minutes to reach the maximum temperature. In the case of large muffle furnaces, it takes more than an hour to get the maximum temperature.


Scitek offers many muffle furnaces with heating temperatures ranging from 100-1700°C. The muffle furnaces can be customized to suit your needs. Many parameters are subject to customization. If you need to buy a lab muffle furnace, you can click : The Complete List of Muffle Furnaces

Frequently asked questions

Types of temperature control technology for muffle furnace

PID: This is a temperature control technique widely used in resistance furnaces. It adjusts the heating power by means of three control terms, proportional, integral and differential, in order to respond quickly to temperature changes, reduce temperature fluctuations and finally reach the set temperature.

  1. Advantages: Economical and cost-effective, muffled furnace with PID technology is suitable for small and medium-sized experiments.

  2. Disadvantages: Difficult to adapt to complex, variable temperature changes.

Microprocessor: This is a more sophisticated temperature control technology, which enables more flexible temperature control by means of a microcomputer.

  1. Advantages: Temperature control is more flexible, can usually achieve multi-stage temperature control, and equipped with a display to simplify the operation of the steps.

  2. Disadvantages: Compared with PID control, the cost may be higher.

Intelligent control system: It can achieve automatic temperature adjustment, fault diagnosis, real-time monitoring and other advanced automated intelligent control, and provide higher temperature control accuracy.

  1. Advantages: High degree of intelligence, can achieve automatic temperature adjustment, real-time monitoring, fault diagnosis and other functions.

  2. Disadvantages: High cost for high-end laboratories.

Infrared radiation temperature measurement technology: This is a non-contact temperature measurement technology commonly used in some high-temperature experiments. It is mainly through the measurement of infrared radiation on the surface of the object that temperature information is obtained.

  1. Advantages: Non-contact temperature measurement, providing real-time temperature monitoring.

  2. Disadvantages: May be affected by gas or particulate matter under specific high-temperature experimental conditions. There may be some error in temperature measurement for specific samples.

What is the difference between a muffle and an oven?

Ovens typically operate at lower temperatures and are powered by electricity, natural gas or LPG. Muffle ovens operate at higher temperatures and are used for specific combustion applications such as burnout or ashing.

What is a laboratory furnace called?

Laboratory furnaces are often called muffle or chamber furnaces, while cylindrical furnaces are called tube furnaces.

Can muffle furnaces be customized to meet specific requirements?

Yes, muffle furnaces can be customized to meet specific requirements for size, temperature range, heating elements and control systems.

What are some common safety features of muffle furnaces?

Common safety features of muffle furnaces include automatic equipment failure alarms, flame detection, over-temperature/over-voltage protection, and automatic power-off to ensure maximum safety.

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